ERI Measurement

Measurement of the effort-reward imbalance

In principle, different measurement approaches towards assessing ERI are feasible. To some extent, contextual information (e.g. job descriptions, level of salary, career mobility, job loss) can be used. However, core aspects of the model concern experiences and perceptions of working people. Therefore, self-report data are of core importance. These date can be acquired through qualitative interviews, ecological momentary assessments, astandardized questionnares or structured interviews. In large scale social epidemiological research an economic measure in terms of a psychometrically well justified standardized questionnaire has proven to be particularly useful.

In this tradition, the ERI model has been operationalized as a standardized self-report measure consisting of three psychometric scales: effort, reward, and overcommitment (Siegrist et al. 2004). There are two versions of the ERI questionnaire: the original or long version, which consisted of 23 Likert-scaled items, and the short version of 16 items. The shorter version of the original questionnaire is more easily applicable in large scale epidemiologic investigations.

Key publications

Original version

de Jonge, J., van der Linden, S., Schaufeli, W., Peter, R. and Siegrist, J. (2008). Factorial invariance and stability of the effort-reward imbalance scales: A longitudinal analysis of two samples with different time lags. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15, 62-72.

Rantanen, J., Feldt, T., Hyvönen, K., Kinnunen, U. and Mäkikangas, A. (2012). Factorial validity of the effort-reward imbalance scale: evidence from multi-sample and three-wave follow-up studies. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 86(6): 645-56.

Siegrist, J., Starke, D., Chandola, T., Godin, I., Marmot, M., Niedhammer, I. and Peter, R. (2004). The measurement of Effort-Reward Imbalance at work: European comparisons. Social Science & Medicine, 58 (8), 1483-1499.

Short version

Leineweber, C., Wege, N., Westerlund H., Theorell, T., Wahrendorf, M. and Siegrist, J. (2010). How valid is a short measure of effort-reward imbalance at work? A replication study from Sweden. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 67(8): 526-31.

Siegrist, J., Wege, N., Pühlhofer, F. and Wahrendorf, M. (2009). A short generic measure of work stress in the era of globalization: effort-reward imbalance. Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 82(8):1005-13.

Other Publications

Almadi, T., Cathers, I., and Chow, C.M. (2013). An Arabic version of the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire: translation and validation study. Psychological Reports: Measures and Statistics, 113: 275-290.

Buapetch, A., Lagampan, S., Faucett, J. and Kalampakorn, S. (2008). The Thai Version of Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (Thai ERIQ): A Study of Psychometric Properties in Garment Workers. Journal of Occupational Health, 50, 480-491.

Conway, P. (2009). The instruments for subjective assessment of work-related stress. Giornale italiano di medicina del lavoro ed ergonomia, 31, 197-199.

Eum, K., Li, J., Lee, H., Kim, S., Paek, D., Siegrist, J. and Cho, S. (2007). Psychometric properties of the Korean version of the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire: a study in a petrochemical company. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 80 (8), 653-661, doi: 10.1007/s00420-007-0174-3  .

Fernández-López, J., Fernández-Fidalgo, M., Martin-Payo, R. and Rödel, A. (2006). Análisis factorial confirmatorio de la versión espanola del cuestionario ``effort-reward imbalance'', de medida del estrés laboral [Confirmatory factor analysis of the Spanish version of the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire]. Atención Primaria, 38, 465-466.

Fernández-López, J., Fernández-Fidalgo, M., Martin-Payo, R. and Rödel, A. (2007). Estrés laboral y calidad de vida en sanitarios de atención primaria: una prueba de la validez del cuestionario PECVEC. Atención Primara, 39 (8), 425-431.

Griep, R., Rotenberg, L., Vasconcellos, A., Landsbergis, P., Comaru, C. and Alves, M. (2009). The psychometric properties of demand-control and effort-reward imbalance scales among Brazilian nurses. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 82, 1163-1172, doi: 10.1007/s00420-009-0460-3.

Johnston, D.W., Jones, M.C., Charles, K. et al (2013) Stress in nurses: Stress-related affect and its determinants examined over the nursing day. Ann Behav Med. DOI 10.1007/s12160-012-9458-2

Johnston, J. (2006). Using computerized ambulatory diaries for the assessement of job characteristics and work-related stress in nurses. Work & Stress, 20, 163-172.

Lau, B. (2008). Effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment in employees in a Norwegian municipality: a cross sectional study. Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 3, 9.

Lehr, D., Koch, S. and Hillert, A. (2010). Where is (im)balance? Necessity and construction of evaluated cut-off pointers for effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83 (1), 251-261.

Li J, Loerbroks A, Jarczok MN, Schöllgen I, Bosch JA, Siegrist J, Fischer JE. (2012)  Psychometric properties and differential explanation of a short measure of effort-reward imbalance at work: a study of industrial workers in Germany. Am J Ind Med 55: 808-815.

Li J, Loerbroks A, Shang L, Wege N, Wahrendorf M, Siegrist J (2012) Validation of a short measure of effort-reward imbalance in workplace: Evidence from China. J Occup Health 54: 427-433

Li, J., Yang, W., Cheng, Y., Siegrist, J. and Cho, S. (2005). Effort-reward imbalance at work and job dissatisfaction in Chinese health care workers: A validation study. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 78, 198-204.

Magnavita, N. (2007). Two tools for health surveillance of job stress: the Karasek Job Content Questionnaire and the Siegrist Effort Reward Imbalance Questionnaire. Giornale italiano di medicina del lavoro ed ergonomia, 29 (3 Suppl), 667-670.

Niedhammer, I., Siegrist, J., Landre, M., Goldberg, M. and Leclerc, A. (2000). Etude des qualités psychométriques de la version francaise du modèle d'équilibre Efforts/Recompenses. Revue d'Epidemiologie et de Santé Publique, 48, 419-437.

Preckel, D., Meinel, M., Kudielka, B., Haug, H. and Fisher, J. (2007). Effort-reward-imbalance, overcommitment and self-reported health: Is it the interaction that matters? Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 80 (1), 91-107, doi: 10.1348/096317905X80183  .

Rödel, A., Siegrist, J., Hessel, A. and Brähler, E. (2004). Fragebogen zur Messung beruflicher Gratifikationskrisen. Psychometrische Testung an einer repräsentativen deutschen Stichprobe. Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 25 (4), 227-238, doi: 10.1024/0170-1789.25.4.227  .

Shimazu, A. and de Jonge, J. (2009). Reciprocal relations between effort-reward imbalance at work and adverse health: A three-wave panel survey. Social Science & Medicine, 68, 60-68, doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.09.05.

Siegrist J, Dragano N, Nyberg ST et al. (2014). Validating abbreviated measures of effort-reward imbalance at work in European cohort studies: the IPD Work consortium. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 87: 249-256.

Siegrist, J., Wege, N., Pühlhofer, F. and Wahrendorf, M. (2009). A short generic measure of work stress in the era of globalization: effort-reward imbalance. Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 82, 1005-1013, doi: 10.1007/s00420-008-0384-3  .

Silva, L. and Barreto, S. (2010). Transcultural adaptation into Brazilian Portuguese of the effort-reward imbalance scale: a study with bank workers. Revista panamericana de salud publica, 27, 32-36.

Sperlich, S., Arnhold-Kerri, S., Engelke, S., Noeres, D., Collatz, J. and Geyer, S. (2009). Development of a questionnaire for measuring effort-reward imbalance in household and family work. Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, medizinische Psychologie, 59, 177-185, doi: 10.1055/s-2008-1067386.

Törnroos M, Keltikangas-Järvinen L, Hintsa T et al (2014) Longitudinal measurement invariance of the effort-reward imbalance scales in the Young Finns study. Occup Environ Med. DOI 10.1136/oemed-2013-101947.

Tse, J., Flin, R. and Mearns, K. (2007). Facets of job effort in bus driver health: deconstructing ``effort'' in the effort-reward imbalance model. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12 (1), 48-62, doi: 10.1037/1076-8998.12.1.48  .

Tsutsumi, A., Ishitake, T., Peter, R., Siegrist, J. and Matoba, T. (2001). The Japanese version of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance Questionnaire: a study in dental technicians. Work & Stress, 15, 86-96.

Tsutsumi, A., Iwata, N., Wakita, T., Kumagai, R., Noguchi, H. and Kawakami, N. (2008). Improving the Measurement Accuracy of the Effort-Reward Imbalance Scales. International Journal of Behavioural Medicine, 15, 109-119, doi: 10.1080/10705500801929718  .

Tsutsumi, A., Iwata, N., Watabe, N., Pikhart, J., Fernández-López, J. et al. (2009). Application of item response theory to achieve cross-cultural comparability of occupational stress measurement. International journal of methods in psychiatric research, 18, 58-67, doi: 10.1002/mpr.277  .

Weyers, S., Peter, R., Boggild, H., Jeppesen, H. and Siegrist, J. (2006). Psychosocial work stress is associated with poor self-rated health in Danish nurses: a test of the effort-reward imbalance model. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 20, 26-34.

Zurlo, M., Pes, D. and Siegrist, J. (2010). Validity and reliability of the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire in a sample of 673 Italian teachers. International archives of occupational and environmental health, 83 (6), 665-674, doi: 10.1007/s00420-010-0512-8

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